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Cyber Physical Systems

Panel Chair:

Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli
Edgar L. and Harold H. Buttner Chair of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, USA

The design of distributed multi-scale complex systems is largely an unsolved problem. Complex systems can be characterized as composed of heterogeneous components and in particular electromechanical, thermal, computing, and communication elements. These subsystems are interconnected, often uncertain in specification, and encompassing environmental effects and the dynamics of all the elements that are critical to the performance of the overall system. Increasingly systems are software and network enabled, and there is significant cost and schedule pressure on developing such large systems. This new generation of systems in use in almost all industry segments such as automotive, avionics, and process control, and that are going to be the core of societal scale systems such as water treatment systems, smart grids, traffic control, environment control and health monitoring are called cyber-physical systems to underline the tight integration between the physical systems and the electronic control systems. This panel presents challenges in cyber-physical systems and approaches to cope with these challenges contemplated by industry in three areas: system engineering as seen by a large conglomerate such as UTC, the energy infrastructure for supporting the cloud as seen by Microsoft and IC manufacturing as seen by GlobalFoundries.


Date Time Location
Wednesday, 23 May 2012 11:00 – 13:00 Salon Rotterdam


Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli
Edgar L. and Harold H. Buttner Chair of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, USA

Title: Taming Dr. Frankenstein: A primer on the challenges posed by Cyber-Physical Systems
Abstract: The technology drivers causing the change in delivery of complex systems are the pervasive use of electronic control units, and consequently of communication networks, and the blurring of distinctions between software, firmware, hardware and multi-physics systems. These drivers are creating the possibility for placing vastly more functionality into products, but at the same time increase interconnectivity and the risk of unwanted system interactions found late in the development process. To solve this problem we need a rigorous approach to systems engineering intended as a methodology for product system level design, optimization and verification that:
• Provides guarantees of performance and reliability against customer requirements while achieving cost and time-to-market objectives;
• Produces modular, extensible architectures for products incorporating mechanical components, embedded electronic systems and application software;
• Exploits analytical tools and techniques to determine design choices and ensure robust system performance despite variations caused by product manufacturing, integration with other products and customer operation; and
• Achieves these objectives through the coordinated execution of a prescriptive, repeatable and measurable process.


Clas A. Jacobson
Director of Systems Department, United Technologies Research Center, USA

Title: Systems, systems engineering, market drivers and emerging technology enablers
Abstract: Systems engineering has changed. The demand for higher levels of performance, interconnectivity and differentiation by customers has increased dramatically compared with times past. Concurrently, recent advances in methods, tools and techniques for designing complex products are available that can empower engineering teams today with radically new approaches for ensuring performance, enhance reliability and reduce lifecycle cost. In this climate in increasing expectation, engineering processes that were successful in the past for simpler systems are inadequate – indeed, may even fail catastrophically – for the design of complex products. This is especially true for products that require the co-design of integrated hardware and software components, which is typical of system offerings in the market today.
UTC invests in systems engineering. This talk will present a working definition of systems engineering that is useful across large “cyber-physical” systems that are found in aerospace and building sectors that are particularly needed to innovate effectively in developing products that address energy efficiency issues.


Jie Liu
Principal Researcher, Microsoft Research, USA

Title: Energy Efficient Infrastructure for the Future Cloud
Abstract: Computing infrastructure is experiencing rapid changes due to the proliferation of mobile devices and expansion of cloud services. IT systems, such as data centers, become the fastest growing industrial sector on energy consumption, doubling its energy footprint every 5 years. In this talk, we will discuss the modern data center infrastructure and explore the philosophy of energy reduction, reuse, and renewal in cloud computing. We examine the opportunities of reducing cloud computing energy consumption through fine-grained sensing and control of both cyber-activates and physical activities and motivate possibilities of alternative data center designs and operations.


Dirk Wristers
Vice President Process Technology R&D, Globalfoundries, Germany

Title: The Future in Manufacturing
Abstract: The Semiconductor Industry is marked with huge investments in manufacturing equipment and fastest innovation cycles. For capital and operational efficiency reasons, today, we are observing the trend to bigger entities. Gigafabs with output in excess of 1 Million Wafers per year are seen as an important factor of success for manufacturing excellence.
However, it is worth spending some time on possible alternative scenarios, too. What if we drove the automation approach to the maximum, such as “lights-out operation” and without breaking the vacuum for the wafers handled? Will manufacturing continue to be driven by volume standard manufacturing, or will there be enough room for diversification in the manufacturing domain? In this case, in-situ manufacturing methods would offer unprecedented opportunities for custom hardware, especially if combined with monitoring and (self-) repair methodologies.
We will discuss the potential fault tolerant cyber physical systems have to enable the new era of semiconductor manufacturing on its way to single digit nanometer technologies, and elaborate on a few scenarios for the future of semiconductor manufacturing.


Edward A. Lee
Robert S. Pepper Distinguished Professor, University of California, Berkeley, USA

Challenger Statement - The Hard Questions About CPS

From an engineering perspective, cyber-physical systems represent a collision of abstractions. For physical systems, engineering models and abstractions have evolved over centuries. Differential equations describe dynamics, and stochastic processes model uncertainty, for example. For cyber systems, the engineering models and abstractions evolved more recently. Computation, in the Turing-Church sense, is about transformation of data. Algorithms are sequences of such transformations. Data structures organize the data for efficient use in such sequences. Although these abstractions have evolved for completely different functions, for CPS, we are attempting to tightly orchestrate their actions. Friction inevitably results. For example, controlling the temporal dynamics of software is extremely difficult, forcing designers of so-called "real-time systems" to forgo many of the key inventions in computer science when designing their systems. In addition, while the engineering techniques for large-scale software systems provide excellent abstractions for procedural, algorithmic computation, such as the abstract data types that prevail in object-oriented design, these abstractions do not readily express concurrent actions in time. It is such actions that define the interaction between the cyber and the physical in CPS.
This collision of abstractions leads to key near-term challenges. First, how can software designers gain control over timing? The underlying technology (the synchronous digital circuits that we use to realize computers) is capable of extremely precise, repeatable, and predictable timing, but getting those properties with today's software technologies requires enormous over-engineering of systems. Second, what kinds of tools and design techniques can we provide CPS system designers? On the cyber side, engineering techniques and toolkits have evolved that facilitate design of enormous (and enormously complex) software systems.
For example, programming languages with good support for object-oriented design, modeling languages that describe large, complex software architectures, type systems that identify many composition errors, and program analysis techniques that check vast numbers of program execution paths all lead to better software with richer functionality. But these techniques fall short when applied to CPS because they were designed for transformation of data, not for control of system dynamics.

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